New tests, same old problems:

how high-stakes standardized tests have always reproduced inequity






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Biografia do Autor

Wayne Au, Universidade de Washington

É professor na Escola de Estudos Educacionais da Universidade de Washington Bothell e editor da revista de ensino de justiça social Rethinking Schools. Seu trabalho se concentra em estudos acadêmicos e públicos sobre testes de alto risco, escolas charter, ensino para justiça social e educação anti-racista. Autor de mais de 100 publicações.


ADAM, E. K., HEISSEL, J. A., HITTNER, E. F., DOLEAC, J. L., MEER, J.; FIGLIO, D. Adolescent cortisol responses to high-stakes testing in school-based settings. Psychoneuroendocrinology, v. 83, n. 85. 2017. DOI:

AMREIN-BEARDSLEY, A. Rethinking value-added models in education: Critical Perspectives on tests and assessment-based accountability. New York: Routledge, 2014.

AU, W. Devising inequality: A Bernsteinian analysis of high-stakes testing and social reproduction in education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, v. 29, n. 6, p. 639–651, 2008. DOI:

AU, W. Commodification, the violence of abstraction, and socially necessary labor time: A Marxist analysis of high-stakes testing and capitalist education in the United States, 2023a. In: HALL, R.; ACCIOLY, I.; SZADKOWSKI, K. (Eds.), The Palgrave international handbook of Marxism and education. p. 223–242. PalgraveMacmillan, 2023a. DOI:

AU, W. Unequal by design: High-stakes testing and the standardization of inequality (2. ed.). New York: Routledge, 2023b.

BAKER, B. D. School finance 101: Rolling dice: If I roll a “6” you’re fired! 2010. Available in:

BAKER, B. D. The value added & growth score train wreck is here. School Finance 101. 2013. Available in:

BAKER, E. L., BARTON, P. E., DARLING-HAMMOND, L., HAERTEL, E., LADD, H. F., LINN, R. L., RAVITCH, D., ROTHSTEIN, R., SHAVELSON, R. J.; SHEPARD, L. A. Problems with the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers. Economic Policy Institute, 2010.

BERLINER, D. C. Effects of inequality and poverty vs. Teachers and schooling on America’s youth. Teachers College Record, v. 115, n. 12. 2013. DOI:

BLANTON, C. K. From intellectual deficiency to cultural deficiency: Mexican Americans, testing, and public school policy in the American Southwest, 1920-1940. Pacific Historical Review, v.72(1), 39–62, 2003. DOI:

CHANG, T. Y.; KAJACKAITE, A. Battle for the thermostat: Gender and the effect of temperature on cognitive performance. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1–10. 2019. DOI: Pone.0216362

DIMAGGIO, D. The loneliness of the long-distance test scorer. Monthly Review, v. 62, n. 7. 2010. Available in:

FARLEY, T. Making the grades: My misadventures in the standardized testing industry. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009.

FARLEY, T. A test scorer’s lament. Rethinking Schools, v. 23, n. 2. 2010. Available in:

GARBER, M. D., STANHOPE, K. K., CHEUNG, P., & GAZMARARIAN, J. A. Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on academic achievement is stronger in High-SES elementary schools compared to low. Journal of School Health, 88(10), 707–716, 2018.

GOODMAN, J., HURWITZ, M., PARK, J.; SMITH, J. Heat and learning (Working Paper 24639). National Bureau of Economic Research. 2018.

HEISSEL, J. A., ADAM, E. K., DOLEAC, J. L., FIGLIO, D.; MEER, J. Testing, stress, and performance: How students respond physiologically to high-stakes testing. Education Finance and Policy, v. 16, n. 2, p. 183–208. 2021. DOI:

HEISSEL, J. A., LEVY, D. J.: ADAM, E. K. Stress, sleep, and performance on standardized tests: Understudied pathways to the achievement gap. AERA Open, v. 3, n. 3, p. 1–17. 2017. DOI:

HOLLOWAY-LIBELL, J.; AMREIN-BEARDSLEY, A. “Truths” devoid of empirical proof: Underlying assumptions surrounding value-added models in teacher evaluation. Teachers College Record Commentary. 2015. Available in:

KANE, T.J., & STAIGER, D. Volatility in School Test Scores: Implications for Test-Based Accountability Systems. Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2002, 235-283. DOI:

KIDDER, W. C.; ROSNER, J. How the SAT creates “built-in headwinds”: An educational and legal analysis of disparate impact. Santa Clara Law Review, v. 43, p. 131–212, 2002.

KUO, M., BROWNING, M. H. E. M., SACHDEVA, S., LEE, K.; WESTPHAL, L. Might school performance grown on trees? Examining the link between “greenness” and academic achievement in urban, high-poverty schools. Frontiers in Psychology, v. 9 n. 1669, p. 1–14, 2018.

NADWORNY, E.; AHMAD, H. Dartmouth will again require SAT, ACT scores. Other colleges won’t necessarily follow. National Public Radio: All Things Considered. 2024. Available in:

ROSNER, J. The SAT: Quantifying the unfairness behind the bubbles. In: SOARES, J. A. (Ed.), SAT wars. New York: Teachers College Press, 2012.

SANTELICES, M. V.; WILSON, M. Unfair treatment?: The case of Freedle, the SAT, and the standardization approach to differential item functioning. Harvard Educational Review, v. 80, n. 1, p. 106–133, 2010.

SASS, T. R. The stability of value-added measures of teacher quality and implication for teacher compensation [Policy Brief]. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Educational Research, 2008.

SCHOCHET, P. Z.; CHIANG, H. S. Error rates in measuring teacher and school performance based on test score gains (NCEE 2010-4004; p. 59). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, National Center for Educational Evaluation and Regional Assistance. 2010. Available in:

SIEVERTSEN, H. H., GINO, F.; PIOVESAN, M. Cognitive fatigue influences students performance on standardized tests. PNAS, v. 113, n. 10, 2621–2624. 2016. DOI:

TERMAN, L. The measurement of intelligence, 1916. In W. Dennis (Ed.), Readings in the history of psychology (pp. 485–496). Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1948. DOI:

VIEIRA, M. The history of the SAT is mired in racism and elitism. Teen Vogue. 2018. Available in:

WU, C. D.; MCNEELY, E.; CEDEÑO-LAURENT, J. G.; PAN, W. C.; ADAMKIEWICZ, G.; DOMINICI, F.; LUNG, C. C. S. L., SU, H. J.; SPENGLER, J. D. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the “greenness” of school surroundings using remote sensing. PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, p. 1–9. 2014. DOI:




Como Citar

Au, W. (2024). New tests, same old problems: : how high-stakes standardized tests have always reproduced inequity. Horizontes, 42(1), e023083.



Seção Temática: Avaliação educacional: velhos embates, novas disputas